1 21세기 도서관에 오신 것을 환영합니다![편집]
이 문서는 21세기의 훌륭한 서적, 연설, 문학작품, 노랫말 등의 주요 구절 등을 올리고 간략한 설명을 볼 수 있는 곳입니다. 연설 및 출판의 시기가 명확하거나 특정 연대로 추정되는 경우 해당하는 연도에 올려주시고, 연대를 특정할 수 없을 경우 맨 아래에 “연대미상” 문단에 추정되는 시기와 함께 올려주시기 바랍니다.
2.1 Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish[편집]
I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: “We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?” They said: “Of course.” My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents’ savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn’t see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.
It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I found it fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it’s likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.
I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.
I’m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn’t been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don’t settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: “If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right.” It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?” And whenever the answer has been “No” for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn’t even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.
This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope it’s the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don’t want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.
Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.
스티브 잡스(Steve Jobs, 1955년 2월 24일 ~ 2011년 10월 5일)가 2005년 6월 12일, 미국 스탠포드 대학교의 114번째 졸업식에서 졸업생들에게 한 축사 전문이다. 14분 30초 가량의 연설에 그의 인생과 '우직하게 밀고 나가라는' 사회초년생에 대한 메시지가 전부 담겨 전세계적으로 인기를 끌었다. 한글로도 많이 번역되었고, 한글 자막이 추가되어 있는 동영상도 쉽게 찾아볼 수 있다.
대학 졸업생들 앞에서 자신에게 최고로 의미있었던 일이 대학교 중퇴라고 말하는 잡스의 위엄 오오 잡스 오오 2011년 잡스가 사망하고 3년 뒤 iWork 의 2014년 버전에 이스터에그로 1997년 Think Different 캠페인광고문과 이 연설이 apple.txt 안에 숨겨져 있다.
3.1 늑대와 향신료[편집]
이 마을에서는 잘 익은 보리이삭이 바람에 흔들리는 것을 '늑대가 달린다'고 말한다.
바람에 흔들리는 광경이 보리밭 속을 늑대가 달리는 것처럼 보이기 때문이다.
또한, 바람이 너무 강해 보리이삭이 쓰러지는 것을 '늑대에게 밟혔다'고 하고, 흉작일 때는 '늑대에게 먹혔다'고 말한다.
그러나, 로렌스의 말에 소녀가 아무 대꾸도 하지 않았는데도 다시 따져 물을 수가 없었다.
천천히 몸을 일으킨 알몸의 소녀가, 말문이 막힐 만큼 아름다웠기 때문이다.
짐칸 위에 앉아 달빛에 비친 머리카락은 비단처럼 매끄러운 것이, 최상품 망토처럼 등허리까지 드리워져 있었다. 목에서 쇄골, 그리고 어깨에 걸쳐서는 당대의 예술가가 조각한 성모상처럼 아름다운 라인이 그려졌고, 나긋나긋한 팔은 얼음 조각상인 것만 같았다.
그리고 그렇게 무기질처럼 느껴질 만큼 아름다운 몸의 중간쯤에 자리한 두 개의 아담한 유방이 묘하게 살아 있는 냄새를 풍기면서, 오싹하리만큰 매력적이면서도 따스한 느낌을 자아내고 있었다.
하지만 군침을 삼킬 만한 그런 광경도, 이내 인상이 찌푸려지는 묘한 것으로 바뀌었다.
소녀가 천천히 입을 벌리고 하늘을 올려다보더니, 눈을 감고 울부짖었던 것이다.
— 하세쿠라 이스나, <늑대와 향신료> Ⅰ권
3.2 한일관계에 대한 대통령 특별 담화문[편집]
존경하는 국민 여러분, 독도는 우리땅입니다. 그냥 우리땅이 아니라 40년 통한의 역사가 뚜렷하게 새겨져 있는 역사의 땅입니다. 독도는 일본의 한반도 침탈 과정에서 가장 먼저 병탄되었던 우리땅입니다. 일본이 러일전쟁 중에 전쟁수행을 목적으로 편입하고, 점령했던 땅입니다. 러일전쟁은 제국주의 일본이 한국에 대한 지배권을 확보하기 위해 일으킨 한반도 침략전쟁입니다. 일본은 러일전쟁을 빌미로 우리 땅에 군대를 상륙시켜, 한반도를 점령했습니다. 군대를 동원하여 왕궁을 포위하고, 황실과 정부를 협박하여 한일의정서를 강제로 체결하고, 토지와 한국민을 마음대로 징발하고, 군사시설을 마음대로 설치했습니다. 우리 국토 일부에서 일방적으로 군정을 실시하고, 나중에는 재정권과 외교권마저 박탈하여 우리의 주권을 유린했습니다. 일본은 이런 와중에, 독도를 자국 영토로 편입하고 망루와 전선을 가설하여 전쟁에 이용했던 것입니다. 그리고 한반도에 대한 군사적 점령 상태를 계속하면서 국권을 박탈하고 식민지 지배권을 확보했습니다. 지금 일본이 독도에 대한 권리를 주장하는 것은 제국주의 침략전쟁에 의한 점령지의 권리, 나아가서 과거 식민지 영토권을 주장하는 것입니다. 이것은 한국의 완전한 해방과 독립을 부정하는 행위입니다. 또한 과거 일본이 저지른 침략전쟁과 학살, 40년 간에 걸친 수탈과 고문, 투옥, 강제징용, 심지어 위안부까지 동원했던 그 범죄의 역사에 대한 정당성을 확보하는 행위입니다.
우리는 결코 이것을 용납할 수가 없습니다. 우리 국민에게 독도는 완전한 주권 회복의 상징입니다. 야스쿠니 신사참배, 역사 교과서 문제와 더불어 과거 역사에 대한 일본의 인식, 그리고 미래의 한일 관계와 동아시아의 평화에 대한 일본의 의지를 가늠하는 시금석입니다. 일본이 잘못된 역사를 미화하고, 그에 근거한 권리를 주장하는 한, 한일 간의 우호관계는 결코 바로설 수가 없습니다. 일본이 이들 문제에 집착하는 한, 우리는 한일 간의 미래와 동아시아의 평화에 대한 일본의 어떤 수사도 믿을 수가 없을 것입니다. 어떤 경제적인 이해관계도, 그리고 문화적인 교류도, 이 벽을 녹이지는 못할 것입니다.
한일 간에는 아직 배타적 경제수역의 경계가 획정되지 못하고 있습니다. 이는 일본이 독도를 자기 영토라고 주장하고, 그 위에서 독도 기점까지 고집하고 있기 때문입니다. 동해 해저지명 문제는 배타적 경제수역 문제와 연관되어 있습니다. 배타적 수역의 경계가 합의되지 않고 있는 가운데, 일본이 우리 해역의 해저지명을 부당하게 선점하고 있으니, 이를 바로잡으려고 하는 것은 우리의 당연한 권리입니다. 따라서 일본이 동해 해저지명 문제에 대한 부당한 주장을 포기하지 않는 한, 그리고 배타적 경제수역에 대한 문제도 더 미룰 수 없는 문제가 되었고, 결국 독도 문제도 더이상 조용한 대응으로 관리할 수 없는 문제가 되었습니다. 독도를 분쟁지역화하려는 일본의 의도를 우려하는 견해가 없지는 않으나, 우리에게 독도는 단순히 조그마한 섬에 대한 영유권의 문제가 아니라, 일본과의 관계에서 잘못된 역사의 청산과 완전한 주권확립을 상징하는 문제입니다. 공개적으로, 당당하게 대처해 나가야 할 일입니다.
존경하는 국민 여러분, 이제 정부는 독도 문제에 대한 대응 방침을 전면 재검토하겠습니다. 독도 문제를 일본의 역사 교과서 왜곡, 야스쿠니 신사참배 문제와 더불어 한일 양국의 과거사 청산과 역사인식, 자주독립의 역사와 주권수호의 차원에서 정면으로 다루어 나가도록 하겠습니다. 논리적인 도발에 대해서는 강력하고 단호하게 대응해 나갈 것입니다. 세계 여론과 일본 국민에게 일본 정부의 부당한 처사를 끊임없이 고발해 나갈 것입니다. 일본 정부가 잘못을 바로잡을 때까지 전 국가적 역량과 외교적 자원을 모두 동원하여 지속적으로 노력해 나갈 것입니다. 그 밖에도 필요한 모든 일을 다 할 것입니다. 어떤 비용과 희생이 따르더라도, 결코 포기하거나 타협할 수 없는 문제이기 때문입니다. 저는 우리의 역사를 모독하고, 한국민의 자존을 저해하는 일본 정부의 일련의 행위가 일본 국민의 보편적인 인식에 기초하고 있는 것은 아닐 것이라는 기대를 가지고 있습니다. 한일 간의 우호관계, 나아가서 동아시아의 평화를 위태롭게 하는 행위가 결코 옳은 일도, 그리고 일본에게 이로운 일도 아니라는 사실을 일본 국민들도 잘 알고 있을 것이기 때문입니다. 우리가 감정적 대응을 자제하고 냉정하게 대처해 나가야 하는 이유도 여기에 있습니다.
일본 국민과 지도자들에게 간곡히 당부합니다. 우리는 더이상 새로운 사과를 요구하지 않습니다. 이미 누차 행한 사과에 부합하는 행동을 요구할 뿐입니다. 잘못된 역사를 미화하거나 정당화하는 행위로 한국의 주권과 자존심을 모욕하는 행위를 중지해 달라는 것입니다. 한국에 대한 특별한 대우를 요구하는 것이 아니라, 국제사회의 보편적인 가치와 기준에 맞는 행동을 요구하는 것입니다. 역사의 진실과 인류사회의 양심 앞에 솔직하고 겸허해지기를 바라는 것입니다. 일본이 이웃 나라에 대해서, 나아가 국제사회의 이 기준으로 행동할 때 비로소 일본은 그 경제의 크기에 알맞은 성숙한 나라, 나아가서는 국제사회에서 주도적 역할을 할 수 있는 국가로 서게 될 것입니다.
국민 여러분, 우리는 식민지배의 아픈 역사에도 불구하고 일본과 선린우호의 역사를 새로 쓰기 위해서 부단히 노력해 왔습니다. 양국은 민주주의와 시장경제라는 공통의 지향 속에 호혜와 평등, 평화와 번영이라는 목표를 정해 전진해 왔고, 또 큰 관계 발전을 이루었습니다. 이제 양국은 공통의 지향과 목표를 항구적으로 지속하기 위해서 더욱 더 노력해야 합니다. 양국 관계를 뛰어넘어 동북아시아의 평화와 번영, 나아가서 세계의 평화와 번영에 함께 이바지해야 합니다. 그러기 위해서는 과거사의 올바른 인식과 청산, 주권의 상호 존중이라는 신뢰가 중요합니다. 일본은 제국주의 침략사의 어두운 과거로부터 과감히 떨쳐 일어나야 합니다. 21세기 동북아시아의 평화와 번영, 나아가 세계 평화를 향한 일본의 결단을 기대합니다. 감사합니다.
2006년 4월, 일본의 순시선이 대한민국의 울릉도와 독도 사이의 배타적 경제수역을 침범하는 사건이 터지자, 당시 대통령이었던 노무현 대통령이 발표했던 특별 담화문이다. '독도는 우리땅입니다.'라는 이름으로 유명하다.
4.1 21세기 자본[편집]
돈이 많은 사람들은 자신의 이익을 지키는데 결코 실패 하지 않는다.
숫자를 다루기를 거부하는 것이 가난한 이들의 이익에 도움이 되는 경우는 거의 없다.
— 토마 피케티, <21세기 자본> 마지막 문장
불평등과 사회 양극화 문제를 경제학 전면에서 다뤄 많은 화제를 낳았던 책이다.
5.1 프란치스코 교황 방한 당시 명언[편집]
방한 당시 정치적 중립을 위해 세월호 참사 리본을 떼는 것이 어떻겠냐는 제안에 한 답변
No union is more profound than marriage, for it embodies the highest ideals of love, fidelity, devotion, sacrifice, and family. In forming a marital union, two people become something greater than once they were. As some of the petitioners in these cases demonstrates, marriage embodies a love that may endure even past death. It would misunderstand these men and women to say they disrespect the idea of marriage. Their plea is that they do respect it, respect it so deeply that they seek to finds its fulfillment for themselves. Their hope is not to be condemned to live in loneliness, excluded from one of civilization’s oldest institutions. They ask for equal dignity in the eyes of the law. The constitution grants them that right.
The judgement of the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is reversed.
It is so ordered.
2015년 6월 26일 미국 연방대법원은 찬성 5 반대 4로 동성결혼 합헌 판결을 내렸다. 이로서 미국의 전주에서 동성결혼이 합법화 되었다.
Good morning. Our nation was founded on a bedrock principle that we are all created equal. The project of each generation is to bridge the meaning of those founding words with the realities of changing times -- a never-ending quest to ensure those words ring true for every single American.
Progress on this journey often comes in small increments, sometimes two steps forward, one step back, propelled by the persistent effort of dedicated citizens. And then sometimes, there are days like this when that slow, steady effort is rewarded with justice that arrives like a thunderbolt.
This morning, the Supreme Court recognized that the Constitution guarantees marriage equality. In doing so, they’ve reaffirmed that all Americans are entitled to the equal protection of the law. That all people should be treated equally, regardless of who they are or who they love.
This decision will end the patchwork system we currently have. It will end the uncertainty hundreds of thousands of same-sex couples face from not knowing whether their marriage, legitimate in the eyes of one state, will remain if they decide to move [to] or even visit another. This ruling will strengthen all of our communities by offering to all loving same-sex couples the dignity of marriage across this great land.
In my second inaugural address, I said that if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well. It is gratifying to see that principle enshrined into law by this decision.
This ruling is a victory for Jim Obergefell and the other plaintiffs in the case. It's a victory for gay and lesbian couples who have fought so long for their basic civil rights. It’s a victory for their children, whose families will now be recognized as equal to any other. It’s a victory for the allies and friends and supporters who spent years, even decades, working and praying for change to come.
And this ruling is a victory for America. This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free.
My administration has been guided by that idea. It’s why we stopped defending the so-called Defense of Marriage Act, and why we were pleased when the Court finally struck down a central provision of that discriminatory law. It’s why we ended “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.” From extending full marital benefits to federal employees and their spouses, to expanding hospital visitation rights for LGBT patients and their loved ones, we’ve made real progress in advancing equality for LGBT Americans in ways that were unimaginable not too long ago.
I know change for many of our LGBT brothers and sisters must have seemed so slow for so long. But compared to so many other issues, America’s shift has been so quick. I know that Americans of goodwill continue to hold a wide range of views on this issue. Opposition in some cases has been based on sincere and deeply held beliefs. All of us who welcome today’s news should be mindful of that fact; recognize different viewpoints; revere our deep commitment to religious freedom.
But today should also give us hope that on the many issues with which we grapple, often painfully, real change is possible. Shifts in hearts and minds is possible. And those who have come so far on their journey to equality have a responsibility to reach back and help others join them. Because for all our differences, we are one people, stronger together than we could ever be alone. That’s always been our story.
We are big and vast and diverse; a nation of people with different backgrounds and beliefs, different experiences and stories, but bound by our shared ideal that no matter who you are or what you look like, how you started off, or how and who you love, America is a place where you can write your own destiny. We are a people who believe that every single child is entitled to life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
There’s so much more work to be done to extend the full promise of America to every American. But today, we can say in no uncertain terms that we’ve made our union a little more perfect.
That’s the consequence of a decision from the Supreme Court, but, more importantly, it is a consequence of the countless small acts of courage of millions of people across decades who stood up, who came out, who talked to parents -- parents who loved their children no matter what. Folks who were willing to endure bullying and taunts, and stayed strong, and came to believe in themselves and who they were, and slowly made an entire country realize that love is love.
What an extraordinary achievement. What a vindication of the belief that ordinary people can do extraordinary things. What a reminder of what Bobby Kennedy once said about how small actions can be like pebbles being thrown into a still lake, and ripples of hope cascade outwards and change the world.
Those countless, often anonymous heroes -- they deserve our thanks. They should be very proud. America should be very proud.
Thank you. (Applause.)
— 2015년 6월 26일 미국 동성결혼 합헌 후 오바마 대통령의 연설